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Wednesday, August 31, 2011

FREE GIVEAWAY! S&J Hardware - shotgun accessories.

For the month of September, we have a really cool contest on the go. Sponsored by S&J Hardware, we've been given a package of custom shotgun parts to be used in a giveaway!

The package will include the following:


-ONE no-jam, high-visibility follower
-ONE jumbo saftey
-ONE velcro shell caddy kit
-ONE 870 forend tool

All new - all ready to install!

Look out for our extensive review on these products in the next couple weeks.

PART - 2

Winner will be selected at random by a process to be determined (dice roll, online random number generation or otherwise.) Method will be filmed and posted to YouTube as evidence of random selection.



Two winners will be selected on September 30 and notified by email, but I'll post the results through all the regular CSD avenues as well.

Our Forum - Ad free, free to join!

As part of my ideal to establish a complete online preparedness network - I've got a forum going under the domain. I've recently paid to have all the google ads removed for both members and guests to create a more immersive (less cheap) experience online.

Join today!

Tuesday, August 30, 2011

Review: Self Sufficiency for the 21st Century

I got this book - along with another one - from a buddy of mine recently. It has diligently stood the test of time beside my middle-floor toilet and I've learned a TON from it.

It's written by two guys who appear quite often in the high-gloss photos within the book. One older, one younger, they really seem to know what they're talking about. They are often pictured participating in the activities they describe, which is a nice change from the typical 'do what I say'  mentality behind self sufficiency books.
I literally can not list all of the topics this book covers. They take a shotgun approach by writing on many topics briefly - allowing the reader to more fully research the topics that interest them. From breadmaking to blacksmithing, these guys seem to have a little knowledge on just about every aspect of living 'off the grid' - something I think many people strive to do.

There's a lot of very useful information in this book. Some of it isn't as practical for some - keeping pigs and butchering cows is a far cry from city life. That said, it's stuff you should take in all the same. You never know.

For myself, I found the pages regarding gardening the most valuable. From building flatbeds to methods of composting, I took in quite a bit of information about inner-city gardening. What I like most about their approach is the fact that they're not just telling you how to build a garden, they're showing you pictures of the gardens they've built to exemplify the methods they publish.

Some hardcore 'off grid' folks will surely scoff at this book but it serves two important purposes; it introduces method and philosophy to the 'non believers' and furthers the understanding of those already on board. 

Have an opinion? Let our FORUM members know...

Monday, August 29, 2011

870 101 - Part 1 - Introduction

I'm going to start another series-based post on the 870 shotgun, manufactured by Remington. I'll likely cover a few different things as separate posts; introduction, as a weapons system, accessories and field work.

I'd like to start by saying that I am far from an 'expert' when it comes to any gun - I'm not a gunsmith or a warfighter - I have however gotten used to my firearm as a tool and have enough experience to feel like I can add to the chapters of information already found online regarding this gun as a weapon platform, in a systems approach. I'm sure a lot of cyberspace shell jockeys will queue up the flamethrowers as soon as they read that I'm not an 'expert' but I'm comfortable with what I can bring to the topic, and I guess that's all that really matters.

1300_stainless from CGN let us use this picture as a shining example of a steel and wood 870.
The Remington 870 is an age-old design. With over ten million manufactured in a relatively short amount of time, the design has proven very successful both commercially and during the heat of combat for nearly half a century. On forums and in gun shops, users post pictures of their 870's in many configurations, and I guess that's what makes this platform so popular - it can be made to suit the shooter. From turkey guns to door-breakers, the 870 is a reliable, consistent shooter by most any modern standards.

I've heard of them breaking - sure. But I think that's what initially swung me over the fence to buy one. If anything happens to mine, there are so many of these things floating around that finding a suitable replacement part, from stock to bead sight - will be almost a non-issue. I'll find one somewhere.

CGN user 'zykopat' kindly let us use this picture of his 870 to display some 'tactical' options.
All 870's have a few key features, no matter the model. A bottom loading receiver with an under-barrel tubular magazine are some of the most distinguishing features of this firearm - a model often duplicated by off-shore clones. There's a safety button behind the trigger group, a design that I'm personally fond of, and another reason for my purchase - remember: red means dead. The 870 can come with varying barrel lengths, magazine capacities, stocks and other accessories that we'll discuss in detail later.

There are a number of 870 models; Marine, Wingmaster, Express, Super Magnum, XCS and Police - if I'm missing one, let me know. Each model has different features out of the box and are designed to accommodate the needs of different shooters. I personally bought the Express - it was the cheapest entry level shotgun I could afford, and it offered some features I was looking for already so that I didn't have those items to upgrade.

The other thing that I like about the express series is that it kind of allows you to build the shotgun that you want, from the ground up. It's just bone stock and you can add what you want to it. I had never built a gun from factory stock model before. There's lots you can add onto an 870 and we'll explore options that we have as consumers and what I decided to do in a later post.

Just as there are for the AK platform and different AR15 disciplines, there are entire armourers courses designed for the 870. That tells me a few things; there are a number of companies dedicated to the education of gunsmiths on this particular model - there's a lot of them out there and that means there are more deals to be had on used models. Typically a used 870 can be bought from three to four hundred bucks, in Canada. That's pretty good in my opinion.

The 870  makes a great 'first gun' as well. It's relatively easy to disassemble and 'learn'. It's multi-use in the field - you've got birdshot, buck and slugs. Just in those ammunition options alone, the end user is granted the flexibility of a crude rifle, a historically proven hunter and a formidable defensive weapon.

My 870 - prior to some modifications that have taken place recently.
Between the more 'tactical' options available and the more traditional hunting guns, the 870 provides an avenue to custom build a gun that works as a system. It's entirely possible to own multiple 870's for different tasks. Though some would argue it's a little 'overboard' - there certainly are enough options to keep the idea fresh in my head.

Through this article series, we'll explore the different accessories that can be attached to an 870 as we look at the gun as a platform - then we'll take it into the field.

Stay tuned. In the mean time - sound off in our FORUM.

PART 2 - Add-on's.

870 Wiki Article
Official Remington 870 homepage
Price point for 870 express

Thursday, August 25, 2011

Review: Kershaw Shallot

A couple of things to get us going here - I got a new knife, and a new flash for my camera. What an awesome opportunity to test out my new piece of kit, by taking pictures of more kit!

If any of you followed the thread on the forum about my recent spending, this new flash is the outcome of that conundrum. It's more of a generic flash for my camera but certainly an upgrade from what I was using for lighting, and I won't even post that picture. It even gives DIY a bad name...

So - I got a new knife.The Kershaw 'Shallot'.

As a gift, I received this knife a few days ago. I havn't really put it through any real cut tests but I have substituted it into place as my current EDC blade. It's done some minor cutting jobs fluidly, just as a new blade should. The real test will come with it's first introduction to drywall - a last resort to shove any blade into that material but a true test to stay on me as an EDC carry option.

It's thinner than my last Kershaw EDC knife, the Clash. The other thing that I like is the way the frame locking system has been incorporated into this knife. The lock is a part of the handle itself - that really cuts down on weight and size. There's no handle outside of the lock itself.

The blade is sleek and sharp out of the box. I got the choice between a serrated edge or not - I went with the serrated one. Why? I kind of look at it as another tool on the tool itself - for the heavier cutting tasks.

The hardware on this knife kind of reminds me of the Leek, with the three body screws and one pivot screw, it's a design found on quite a few Kershaw models. This one has the same pocket clip that I've accredited Kershaw for including before - screwed to the body, not inside it. It sits nicely in my pocket and draws quickly.

The blade deploys quickly by the use of Kershaw's SpeedSafe system. It snaps into place and stays there - rigid and ready to cut. Made with Sandvik 13C26 steel - I'm sure this blade will stand up to most anything I can put it into.

I'm pleased with the overall feel of this knife - it's light and fast, a nice change from my more clunky previous EDC folder. It is a little 'intimidating' however, and you'll need to fit this knife into your own POU as you see fit. A good folder at a reasonable price - free for me!

Have something to say about this knife? Sound off in our FORUM.

Thanks Dad!

Monday, August 22, 2011

Prepping as a hobby

A couple of times now, I've seen 'prepping' described as a hobby by some people online.

What an awesome thing to explore!

In many ways, the things we do as 'preppers' often cross-over to our everyday lives. The most simple example of this is the inclusion of your EDC gear into your standard 'getting ready' procedure in the morning. For most people, their every day gear consists of little more than a wallet, a watch and maybe a USB key. However, some people have a finely tuned system that hopefully enables them to solve real-life problems on the fly. More people than you might imagine have an EDC system - they just don't call it that. We all carry tools to help us, some more than others.

Just in our EDC, most guys take countless hours researching each tool as it applies to their overall system. In doing so, they learn all sort of things about flashlights, knives, load bearing kit, shoes, clothes, technology and more. In my humble opinion - this learned information trumps celebrity trivia outright. Not to say that one man's hobby is any more important than the next, but I do believe in a type of gradient when it comes to knowledge. Some information is just more important than the rest.

Reading reviews, conducting field trials and developing cheaper and better ways to do things is another huge aspect of the hobby-based prepper mindset. For some, it's really fun to get new gear and bring it into the middle of the bush. This is one aspect of preparedness that really interests me. I like to actually get out and use the gear I've purchased. That said, I'm not huge on stockpiling multiples of my gear... which can be another aspect of hobby-prepping. Some guys like to have a clean closet with, again, a system for stacking cans and gear.

There are multiple ways that people start living a more prepared and self sufficient lifestyle - and that's what it is, a lifestyle. I've found that for most, it's through treating preparedness as a hobby. Sure, there's the lunatic fringe that begin getting into it as a means of fuelling their own irrational psychoses, but more often than not I've found that people are usually just more interested in creating a safe environment for their loved ones during a crisis. That's an important way to look at it as well - it put's it back in your lap. You're creating the life you want to live, regardless of the external influences shaping the world around you.

So hobby-on preppers... and don't forget to drop by our FORUM.

Sunday, August 21, 2011

Review: CRKT Zilla-Tool

Today I've got kind of a unique product to take a look at. My brother bought this multi-tool to add to his tackle box as a sort of fix-all when he runs into a problem on the riverside. I didn't know CRKT offered any products like this but it's a wonder they don't have more - I like this little tool and I think you will too.

It's got a flip out blade with a paddle (flipper) on the back end. Half way down are some serrations and it's still sharp to the touch after many trips into the bush. With a black zytel handle, you needn't worry about any weathering to this tool. Specs from CRKT can be found here.

What I think separates this tool from the other models out there is the sheer simplicity. Sure - it's not a mobile toolbox, but if you're buying a tool to fit one specific purpose, this is a real contender. A knife, a flat head, a phillips and a good set of pliers - what more do you need in a tackle box?

A feature that grabs me about the pliers is the way they open. They're not spring loaded, but when you slide the handle lock down to open the pliers, they gradually open with a slight amount of pressure - a good thing to have for pressure sensitive holding jobs.

It's got a pocket clip that is screwed right into the body - a feature that I usually praise Kershaw knives for practically perfecting. It's still strong and springy but truth be told - it hasn't seen much pocket carry, and is pretty big to be clipping on. It takes up a lot of real estate in almost any pocket.

The tool as a whole fits in my hand nicely and feels slick - it's a very streamlined design. My brother is very happy with his purchase and shows off this nifty gadget whenever he can - usually by unhooking my lost bet.

Feel free to share your thoughts HERE - in our forum.

Wednesday, August 17, 2011

Review: S&W Bullseye

I picked up the S&W Bullseye at a local army surplus store, brand new for about 25 bucks as I remember it. I just wanted a fixed blade knife to supplement my vehicle EDC bag. I picked this one out for one reason - I recognized the brand. At the time, I had limited experience with blades and didn't know what to look for. It's a decent blade, but it's far from perfect.

I guess for this blade, it's all about POU. Made with 440C steel, it's strong enough for most tasks. I'm not sure how it would perform in the long-term given it's one major flaw - it's not full tang. The steels narrows to a rounded point around the second screw and does not maintain the shape of the blade itself. I'm not sure how comfortable this would be after multiple cutting tasks as the grip can move around a little bit if you really squeeze it.

It came with a nylon sheath that feels quite durable. I doubt any work that I put this knife through will damage the sheath in any way - aside from the usual fray and wear it would see as a result of being thrown around a little. The knife sits in there snug and closes with a velcro strap. I wound some 550 cord around it to make good use of the space I have in my vehicle bag.

Check out our discussion on this blade in the FORUM.

The handle just feels like rubber. It's got a good grip and my fingers fit correctly into the grooves cut out on the handle itself. It's comfortable to hold but a little tiny bit unbalanced towards the blade end - I think that's more to do with the strange tang design than anything else.

A good knife at a good price - I guess, depending on where you get it. If you're just looking for an economy blade there are better choices out there, but this will do most cutting jobs in a pinch.

Monday, August 15, 2011

Sunday, August 14, 2011

Review: Condor map pouch

This is another little piece of kit that blends so well into my system that I forgot it was separate from my range kit. It's built well enough for the price tag that accompanies it - 20 bucks... go get it.

There is a good sized Velcro panel on the front for attaching nametapes or morale patches. All the seams along the outside of the pouch seem strong enough for mild usage. Again, it's awkward for me to describe the real-world durability of gear used in a combat situation - I've never been there. I can only describe it from my standpoint - some throwing around and mild range usage.

This pouch folds open twice. The front folds open with some spots to contain paperwork, cards or other small items behind the plastic. I'm not sure how well this would hold up to sharper or wider things being stored there - I think it's primary POU is for the storage of paperwork. I use this space to keep all of my registration papers for the firearms I have with me, copies of my license and test papers and anything else I think would be useful to a range officer in asking anything about my activities.

The front panel can also be pulled up to show a few spots to hold writing utensils. There's another spot for some paper or small item storage too.

In the back end of the pouch, it folds out to hold a larger map, folded paper, documents or otherwise. It's all held in place by some Velcro panelling on the inside of the large back pouch. In this way, the plastic folding container can be completely removed if the user wishes. I haven't had the need to test the waterproof capabilities of this unit - I havn't even had it in the rain. I'm confident that it would keep the contents reasonably dry, based on my handling of it.

When you sit back and take a look at a piece of kit like this, you have to keep in mind a few different things. It's twenty bucks - brand new, off the shelf. So therefore, you're going to be getting a piece of gear that is in all likelyhood not made to the same standards as higher-priced gear. In saying that, if you're looking for a light-use kit that conforms to your own personal POU and maybe fits into that 'second-kind-of-cool'... then why not?

Join the discussion on this pouch in our FORUM.

Saturday, August 13, 2011

(soft) Launch of CSD forums - 2.0!

If any of you were here while CSD was a fledgling 'proboards' forum, you'll likely remember the time you clicked on the link to find the blog in it's place. I thought the blog was more conducive to the content-delivery system I wanted to have. Since then, I've gotten the site to basically where I want it to be. There's a few things that need some polishing but beyond that, it's certainly grown since the early days.

I've started up a forum based on some advice by ASC user Wilson and some feedback I've received from a few different CSD readers. I'm in the process of making a few changes and deciding on even more. In the future I can see a rework to the way CSD is provided to you, the reader. Until then, I've gone with some free alternatives - until I see if there is enough interest generated to warrant dropping the cash on upgrades.

You'll find a link to a forum post for every review we do from here on out - I might go back to each review and create posts if I can find the time. So now you've got a few different ways to interact with each author and each article - youtube, facebook, as a comment on the post and now - a forum.

We'll call this a soft release (that's what she said) - I want to see what kind of interest the forum generates and we'll go from there. Feel free to drop in the live-chat session too.

Keep in mind that the forum is very beta as well - if you can see room for improvement, POST.

Thanks to all for reading and getting our community this far already.

Here goes nothin'  - check out the thread on our forum for this post, HERE.

Friday, August 12, 2011

Preparedness ≠ Paranoia

There's something important to remember in all of this. In preparing, in training and in life. There's a big difference between preparedness and paranoia.

There has to be a line somewhere, however. We, in prepping for what may - or more importantly, what MAY NOT - must remember to keep full and rich lives ahead of our planning. It is important to be prepared, yes - but at the end of the day you can only do what you can do.

This does not mean taking a half-assed approach to everything. It means smelling the roses, enjoying sunny days and taking care of ourselves. Some things are bound to happen. Power outages, short and long are historically PROVEN to happen in times of over-consumed power in the summer and from stormy weather in the winter. This isn't to say that power outages are confined only to these times, only that they are historically more prevalent during these times. We should use this knowledge to prepare for events on certain proven timelines.

Events that transpire as one-off things require a different mindset. Terrorist attacks, widespread rioting and localized crime are prime examples of this. All of these things have occurred in Canada very recently, with the exclusion of terrorism. Though the threat has been present, nobody - thankfully - has succeeded in an attack. These events require a sort of long-term plan that only real 'preparedness' can affect. Though it is unlikely, it is not IMPOSSIBLE for these events to occur. That is why we prepare.

Got something to say about it? Speak up in our FORUM.

Review: Boker reality series folder

I bought this knife based on a few things; it was supposed to be an assisted opener and a decent EDC blade. I got it from S&R knives in Canada and had it shipped to me as a pick-it-yourself gift from my wife for Christmas.

I got the knife and on getting it out of the packaging I noticed a few things right off the top; this knife will serve me more as a specialty piece and - wow, these guys are really focused on the 'fighting' element of this blade series. The packaging included had some flyers regarding the 'fighting' system this blade was based on. That's good and fine as eye candy but I need'nt remind our readers of the legalities surrounding this mindset. Be very careful of where you wear / use a knife like this. This knife looks like a weapon - make no two ways about it - it's got a window popper on the tail end and finger grooves on the handle. It'd make a good companion knife on the range, but not in the office.

I had the opportunity to really test this blade lately. I was up at my cottage and put it to work trimming up some wood to get a fire started. On a few passes, the locking mechanism broke completely. Not only does the knife not stay open now, it can be unlocked with the pressure of my thumb on the back end of the blade. Admittedly, I put the knife through more work than it was cut out for - but you should keep that in mind when purchasing this knife. It's made well, but this is not a knife I would stake my life on.

It's a cool looking knife - and it fits my hand well. The specs can be found online - but I havn't found a credible source.

For the price - anywhere from 50 to 80 bucks online; keep looking. This knife is NOT worth the money. Especially given that most retailers in Canada will not sell this as an assisted opener, you really have to dig your thumb into that button to release the lock. I wouldn't have bought this knife, had I known - but it makes another addition to my knife drawer.

Feel free to discuss this review at length, in the this article's dedicated thread in our FORUM.

Wednesday, August 10, 2011

Use Of Force

No doubt about it - there was a true WROL situation happening across the pond this week. I offer all of the cyber-support I can to the families and friends over there who were victimized by these thugs. It's a stark awakening for some - but a reminder for others. It's a deep look into our natural, animal instincts. It's a mirror to failed policy and generations of mistrust.

There are no excuses. There are no true explanations. It's just people being people - we're all capable of it, some just have better coping skills.

Europe, America, Canada - there are examples that can be made in almost every major populated area in the world. I am no sociology professor, but I can see things happening on the news that I've never seen before. I don't know what's causing it, but I know that there are massive groups of people who seem to get a good kick out of destroying things. Lives, property, morale - if you look closely, a lot of the 'protesters' in England this week were smiling and laughing with each other - not being angry and screaming for change.

These examples are good reason to discuss a topic often left out of Canadian conversations, especially regarding the use of force. While some people subscribe to the notion of 'god given rights', I prefer to remove the religion from that statement and just call it 'natural rights'. I guess you have to be slightly humanistic to accept the notion that we all have inherent, inalienable rights that apply under all circumstances but in any case, this is a philosophy that I subscribe to and I'll discuss the use of force assuming that natural rights do apply.

Specifically, the natural right I'm referring to is a simple fact in my eyes; you have the right to protect yourself. In saying this, please understand that I am not identifying your property as a part of you - that's a separate issue that I'm not prepared to discuss in this article.

Understand, as well - I am not a police instructor nor a non-violent-crisis-intervention teacher. I'm just speaking about common sense here. A rational reaction method to an unreasonable situation. I think that's a fair conversation to have - after all, we're adults; responsible and rational.

So let's toss around a situation - there's a localized loss of the rule of law in your area - under a few kilometres from your house. You've secured your doors and main floor windows and your family is all accounted for and safe. What's next? I'll take for granted the fact that you've thought about this in advance.

If you're being confronted by an aggressive individual, there are a number of things to take into account when you're in the middle of a situation like this. Is he alone? What's his disposition? Does it look like he's carrying a weapon?

Remember O O D A.

Here's a little list to get us going. Use this as rough guide to your actions. Of course, everyone's arrangement will be different and dynamic but this could serve as a good starting point for an open dialogue concerning the use of force in a truly defensive situation. This list is used (apparently) by police officers - you'll have to draw up your own list. That in itself is a fantastic way to explore how self aware you are; know what you're capable of.

1. Physical Presence
2. Soft Hands
3. Mace or Pepper Spray
4. Hard Hands
5. Police Baton, Taser, etc.
6. Threat of Deadly Force
7. Deadly Force

Under no circumstances am I trying to portray a violent confrontation as a 'cool' or 'fun' thing to be involved in. I hope you can ascertain that from the tone of this article. You should only progress through these stages begrudgingly. Only after you've exhausted every possible alternative could you even consider the use of force on someone else. Alas, there will be times in an actual WROL situation that we will be forced to stand against someone trying to do harm to us. It's just a simple fact - there are people out there who will make the conscious decision to attack us at the most opportune time. It's unfortunate, but it's the reality of the world we live in. But I guess that's a fight or flight thing, isn't it?

These stages represent your reactions to a violent situation as it progresses. The time needed to advance to each new stage will depend entirely on you - and I'm not sure if it's something a civilian can train for, but it's certainly something you should be aware of.

It's a touchy subject - one worth talking about in our FORUM.

Sunday, August 7, 2011

Review: North 49 Firesteel

A quick look at a piece of gear that I forgot I even had, though admittedly - that's the point of its placement. I keep this inside my hiking bag, attached to the pull rope that closes off the inner bag. I keep it there, attached to a length of paracord. I keep it on paracord for a number of reasons - it helps me identify what it is, among the other stuff in my bag. It's always good to have a bit of extra paracord on me as well.

I attached a keyring to the hole in the top of the firesteel to keep a length of an old sawblade attached. True - it's not the best striker, but if I don't have a knife on me it will work wonders I'm sure.

I took my hiking bag on an outing today and found this item right where it should be as I opened the bag. I had almost forgotten that this item was with me, but I suppose that is a part of it's own philosophy of use. It's truly an emergency item. It's there when I'll need it most - I put it right back after the picture was taken.

On the trail, I gathered a handful of dried out plant matter. I set it all on a rock along the shore of the river and placed my firesteel at about a 45 degree angle from the surface of the rock. I scraped the shaft of the firesteel with my knife - a SOG seal pup - and that was all it took. I wasn't surprised to witness the utility of this tool, but it was still cool to see it work so simply.

I'd recommend this type of tool to all outdoor enthusiasts. It displaces the need for a lighter - but it's easier to just use a butane torch by far. This acts very well as an emergency fire starter and should be included in any hiking bag. I'm not sure of the variances between different manufacturers but I doubt very much that you'd go wrong with any commercially available model.

We've got a discussion going on our FORUM regarding this article - c'mon in!

Thursday, August 4, 2011

You hear a sound...

As my wife was jogging with our dog through one of the neighbourhoods close to ours, she heard a scream. As I have tried to explain to people, my wife tried to explain it to me. It was a 'scream', not a 'yell'. People, especially in the summer time, yell very often. There's all kinds of kids around too, having fun in the sun.

This instance, however, was different. Almost immediately following the noise was the clear sight of a male fleeing from the direction of the commotion. A scary thing to witness - not knowing what's going on, but my wife moved towards the location of the situation. She saw a younger female being lead towards a house, yelling and very upset. She called 911. The police arrived, a statement was taken and a little blurb in the newspaper gave us some closure - the bastard'd been caught.

The point isn't in the story itself, but you can pull a great lesson from all of this.

After everything had calmed down, we had a great chat about how she used the O O D A loop - even without consciously thinking about it. It's amazing how, even with the slightest amount of mindset training, it takes over in the face of crisis. She was able to put together her most rational decision and act on it.

These types of situations can happen anywhere. People lose their tempers all the time, and sometimes those scenarios can lead to medical emergencies - now there's a number of variables involved. It can occur at your cottage, in the suburbs, at a coffee shop or in the country. Human emotion is not limited by the same constructs that our feet are.

Take tomorrow as an opportunity to practise honing your auditory and visual skills. Just take a moment to stop and listen. Picking up on what's going on around you while still interacting with your environment. Can you explain what's happening around you while having your eyes closed?

Also take a moment to think about the differences between the types of 'outbursts' you could hear from a person. Think about what your reaction might be - and the legal, ethical and moral boundaries that might prevent you from doing what you think is 'right'.